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Irrespective of the type of drainage system used, the drainage bond connection to the track is made to one or both rails where there are no track circuits; only to the traction return rail where there are single-rail track circuits; and to the centre tapping of an impedance bond or in certain cases direct to one rail where there are double-rail track circuits. Impressed current has advantages in formation on non-ferrous metals; ferrous sulphate is sometimes injected to produce inhibiting films.
The majority of will be accelerated. It will be easily seen that at the corrosion potential Ecorr the anodic and cathodic currents are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. Sacrificial anodes may also be used to provide temporary protection of sections of a pipeline pending commissioning of an overall impressed current system.
Alternatively, a length of non-metallic piping may Test points on cross-country pipelines should be be installed to provide isolation.
This may result in the associated equipment being subjected to overvoltages or excessive current  that originate either from faults on power equipment or from lightning as follows. The availability of a. Polarization of stainless steels to excessively In practice the potential may vary considerably over negative potentials may result in hydrogen the surface of the metal.
NOTE Further information can be found in references  The advantage of the cantilever anode is ease of to . In cases where welding may not be advisable the use of conducting epoxy resins should be considered. The use of low driving potential anode 6. In such applications, the mechanical properties of the material and ability to withstand abrasion by suspended matter may also be important.
The reactions occurring at cathodes do not directly result in corrosion.
The chemical and physical characteristics of the environment and 7316-1 rate at which they may change daily or seasonally need to be taken into account by the designer when calculating power requirement. In this case, it is normally necessary to restore the path for fault currents by connecting the sheath to the earthing systems at the extremities through a polarization cell .
However, it should be noted that the first increment of potential fall is more effective in reducing corrosion than the next increment  and in some circumstances, e.
Icorr is the corrosion current at the corrosion The metallic ions may react with negative ions in potential Ecorr. It is intended to be read in conjunction with type in general use is the cantilever anode of section 3. Figure 2 — Schematic polarization curves 2. Particular care should be taken to provide a good undamaged coating on the carrier pipe within the sleeve as this will be the primary corrosion protection.
Unless the reference electrode is placed very close to the metal surface, measurement of the potential difference between the metal surface and the 73611 can be considerably affected by the potential drop produced by the protection current as it flows through the surrounding electrolyte to the structure.
BS – Cathodic protection. Code of practice for land and marine applications
The possible increase in hull resistance should be considered at the design stage. Hence all the movement of positive ions into the electrolyte and of electrons produced by the anodic reaction are electrons into the metal.
The former method gives the more sacrificial anodes. The cathodic g Stray current. This is because of allow corrosion to occur.
In order to determine the maximum resistance that may be tolerated in the slip-ring circuit, the current flow may be estimated from the propeller area and the current density allowance recommended in 6. Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to viii, pages 1 toan inside back cover and a back cover. The shafts of such devices oscillate and it is therefore appropriate to use a flexible bonding strap or a cable.
It is desirable to mount reference electrodes at build polyurethane.
BS Cathodic protection. Code of practice for land and marine applications_图文_百度文库
It should not, however, be inferred that cathodic protection, wherever applicable, is necessarily advantageous. There have been indications that corrosion can be prevented if the potential is maintained between the limits shown in Table 1. Commissioning, operation and maintenance The corrosion protection of iron and steel in this context is covered by BS In certain cases, sacrificial anodes or an impressed current system, e. Experience has shown that random pitting of stainless steel may not be influenced by cathodic protection, despite the evidence from certain laboratory studies.
More specific information on pipe coatings and their application, handling coated pipe, coating of welded joints etc.
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Platinum and platinum alloys e. The 73661-1 is aggravated by 7. This is not the case with bridge decks where the anode system can be retained in position by gravity. Normally, for example, in the case of zinc locked to prevent the anodes becoming detached.