Performance of American and Israeli individuals with CVA on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA). Am J Occup Ther. Background. The LOTCA (Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment) battery is a cognitive screening test which is widely used. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery.

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The test has been used in a tgerapy number of studies and its psychometric properties have proven satisfactory in many research projects and in very diverse populations and geographic areas. The sample was obtained from a specific urban, public, and free center that treats people with substance addictions in the city of Madrid: The participants were informed of the two objectives of the assessment: This work has limitations that should be considered.

The LOTCA kit contains testing materials card decks, coloured blocks, pegboard set, and other asssssment and a manual that includes definitions of the cognitive domains assessed, instructions for administration, and specific scoring guidelines.

Recommendations for Further Research. Sign in or create an account. By continuing to use our website, you cognltive agreeing to our privacy policy. As a screening test, it may be used ahead of others that are widely used in occupational therapy i. However, its use among this clinical population has never before been established.

Study Objectives The objective of this work is to apply LOTCA to a sample of people receiving treatment for substance addiction and to explore its convergent validity with other occupational and neuropsychological tests used to estimate cognitive deficits. Brain Structural and Functional Connectivity. No work has been found which uses LOTCA in a population of people with substance addiction undergoing treatment.

There are many ways to view addiction: Two of them did not finish the assessment because they did not want to, which means that the final sample was subjects.

The Wilcoxon two-sample test showed that all subtests differentiated at the.

Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment to Evaluate People with Addictions

Specifically, the ACLS-5 is a motor test which includes comprehension of instructions, executive planning, and the ability to resolve conflicts that arise during its performance. An incident, small-size sample. This review found a critical deficit in the availability of occupational assessment instruments, which have been validated in the field of addictions.


Their detection by cognitive assessment allows designing therapj programs that are aimed to better use of other therapeutic resources available, such as cognitive therapy or therapy relapse prevention [ 14 ]. Asseesment higher the scores were, the better the performance was. A correlational pattern was observed of a considerable magnitude between the effects of the LOTCA scales and those of some ocxupational tests, but not with others.

All of the participants signed an informed consent form prior to the testing. View at Google Scholar. Measurement and Management of Cognitive DisabilitiesC.

Occupational Therapy International

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, lorwenstein reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The main limitation is the sample size, which is not loewensten enough to absolutely affirm the relationships observed.

The occupational tests were administered simultaneously by two occupational therapists principal and observant evaluator and the neuropsychological tests by three neuropsychologists each patient was assigned to one of them. The scores were placed on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 to 4 with cognitkve exception of items 1—5 regarding categorization, unstructured Risk Object Classification [ 31 ], and structured ROC.

The test was applied with satisfactory results on subjects being treated for substance addiction and evidence was found of convergent validity with neuropsychology tests [ 32 ].

There is barely any convergence in measures with memory and executive function tests. It provides an assessment of basic cognitive skills required for everyday function, including orientation, visual loewenstsin and psychomotor abilities, problem-solving skills, and thinking operations.

Literature Review According to a recent review, occupational therapists have been participating in teams treating people with addictions for decades although their scientific production is quite scarce [ 15 ].

Previous studies have shown that neuropsychological alterations are associated with reduced level of involvement and participation of drug dependent individuals in treatment programs and with a higher rate of dropping out of these programs [ 12 ], to the extent that individuals with addictive behaviors may have considerable difficulty in becoming aware of their own deficit, to understand and reason complex instructions, to inhibit impulsive responses, to plan their daily activities, and to make everyday decisions [ 13 ].


A confirmatory factor analysis was done on the theoretical structure of the survey using the unweighted least squares method since ordinal categorical items were used and normality was not expected in the distribution of the data.

Administration time is approximately 10 minutes. This work explored the existence of a relationship between both types of tests. The review concludes the need to validate occupational instruments in people with addictions who are undergoing treatment as an urgent need in order to promote and improve the scientific production of the profession in this clinical field.

Finally, there are newer versions of LOTCA than the one used which could provide all-new data not contemplated by this initial version. View at Google Scholar M. In conclusion, LOTCA is a cognitive screening test that allows for an approximation of some areas of cognitive function yet not all meaning that it must be supplemented with other tests that measure executive function and memory.

The battery provides an initial profile of the cognitive abilities of the brain-injured patient that can be used as a starting point for occupational therapy intervention and as a screening test for further assessment. This scale is likely useful in more serious cerebral function pathologies but not in addiction subjects, whose cognitive deficits are minor and do not affect such basic functions.

However, there are correlations of a great effect size with other screening tests both in the field of occupational therapy ACLS-5 and in the field of neuropsychology BSCE. There is a lack of research applying test of occupational assessment to populations of patients treated by addictive behaviors.

Correspondence should be addressed to Gloria Rojo-Mota ; se.

Subjects in the study consisted of two patient groups 20 traumatic head injury patients and 28 cerebrovascular accident patients and one control group 55 non-brain-injured adults.