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This becomes very difficult for an arbitrary time period with incomplete transactions in process at both the beginning and the end of the period.

Moderate 20—25 E Full disclosure principle. The sale itself, therefore, does not give an accurate basis on which to estimate the amount of cash that will be collected. Others argue that prediction of future cash flows is more important.

Accounting standards based on individual conceptual frameworks generally will not result in consistent and comparable accounting reports. Faithful Representation For accounting information to be useful, it must be a faithful represen- tation of the real-world phenomenon that it purports to represent. CA Time 25—35 minutes Purpose—to provide the student with the opportunity to identify and discuss the benefits of the con- ceptual framework.

CA a The economist views business income in terms of wealth of the entity as a whole resulting from an accretion attributable to the whole process of business activity. Another type of comparability, consistency, is present when a company applies the same accounting treatment to similar events, from period to period, the company shows consistent use of accounting standards. Relevant information is capable of making a difference in a decision.

Even if the subscription rate does provide for the recovery of all associated costs within the first period, however, the editorial and publishing activities still would be important since the firm has an obligation in the amount of the present value of the costs expected to be incurred in connection with the editorial and publication activities to produce and deliver the magazine. Revenue is to be recognized when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and reliable measurement of the amount of the revenue is possible.

It should be noted that only where liquidation appears imminent is the going concern assumption inapplicable. Information that is decision useful to capital providers may also be useful to other users of financial reporting who are not capital providers. Unless subscrip- tions are obtained at prices that provide for the recovery in the first subscription period of all costs of selling and filling those subscriptions, the editorial and publishing activities are as crucial as the sale in the earning of the revenue.


In such instances revenue recognition must be deferred until proper periodic income measurement can be achieved. For example, some believe that accountability should be the primary objective of financial reporting.

While comparability does pertain to the reporting of information in a similar manner for different companies, it also refers to the consistency of information, which is present when a company applies the same accounting treatment to similar events, from period to period. This statement indicates that excluding immaterial items will not affect the completeness of the financial statements.

The driveway will last for many years, and therefore it should be capitalized and depreciated. Describe the usefulness of a conceptual framework. These sample display houses are assets because they represent rights to future service potentials or economic benefits.

An item that meets the definition of an element should be recognized if: However, unaudited financial statements do not give me any reasonable assurance about these claims. The fact that the amount of outstanding common shares doubled in January of the subsequent reporting period probably should be disclosed because such a situation is of importance to present shareholders. This assumption in accounting indicates that economic activity can be identified with a particular unit of accountability.

Promotional costs often are considered expenses of the period in which the expenditures occur due to the uncertainty in determining the time periods benefited. The estimate of the number of units of a particular model which will be sold as a result of a display model should include not only units sold while the model is on display but also units sold after the display house is torn down or altered.

Intermediate Accounting Ifrs Edition Volume 2 Chapter 16 –

A legal sale is transacted before any revenue is recognized in the accounts. These costs should be allocated to future periods of benefit through depreciation expense. As indicated, the measurement project relates to both initial measurement and subsequent measurement.

This will xccounting in revenue numbers that are not comparable to another company with a similar contract but whose management used less optimistic estimates. It should be emphasized that it is not a violation of the cost principle to use the fair value of the shares.

  ASTM E1340 96 PDF

As soon as it is harvested, the crop can be valued at its selling price less the cost of transportation to the market and this valuation gives an extremely accurate measure of the amount of revenue vklume the period without the need of waiting until the sale has been made to measure it.

Cadbury reports no effects in The success of this amortization method is dependent upon accurate estimates of the intermeidate and selling price of shell houses to be sold. Simple 15—20 E Elements of financial statements. Financial statements are misleading if they omit a material fact or include so many immaterial matters as to be confusing. The objective indentifies the purpose of financial reporting.

Intermediate Accounting Ifrs Edition Volume 2 Chapter 16

In general, an item that meets the definition of an element should be recognized if: Comprehensive assignments 27, 28, 29 14 6, jfrs, 9, 10 on assumptions, principles, and constraints. If its inclusion or omission would have no impact on intdrmediate decision maker, the information is immaterial.

Usefulness is the most important quality because, without usefulness, there would be no benefits from information to set against its costs. Moderate 20—30 CA Expense recognition principle. Information about the impact of general and specific price changes may be highly relevant but not understandable by all users.

The suggestions below are intended exition serve as examples. If we were to select sales value, for example, we would have an extremely difficult time in attempting to establish a sales value for a given item without selling it.

However, if it is material, it should be reported. It should also be noted that the revenue recognition principle iintermediate that revenue should not be recognized until the benefits will flow to the company and can be measured reliably.