THE title al-Khulafa ar:Rashidun, or ‘the rightly. guided Khalifas’, is given to the four who immedi·. ~te1Y”’succeeded Mu1:Iammad-Abu Bakr,’Umar. ‘lJthman and . Those Caliphs who truly followed in the Prophet’s foot steps are called ‘The Rightly-Guided Caliphs’ (Al-Khulafa-ur Rashidun in Arabic). KHULAFA-E-RASHIDUN Khulafa or Caliphs are the leaders of an Islamic state or The period of rule of the Khulafa E Rashid or Khulafa ar Rashidun was of.

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From Bosra Khalid sent orders to other corps commanders to join him at Ajnadayn, where according to early Muslim historians, a Byzantine army of 90, modern sources state 9, [46] was concentrated to push back the Muslims. By God, Usama is qualified to be your general just as his father was qualified to be a general.

The protestors returned and Uthman swore that he did not write the order.

Their position may be called a legitimist one. The war was primarily between those who supported Uthman’s cousin and governor of the Levant, Muawiyahand those who supported the caliph Ali.

We obeyed our leaders and our chiefs, and they misled us from the right path. In the final scale of allowance that was approved by Umar the main provisions were: This work was undertaken due to the vast expansion of Islam under Uthman’s rule, which encountered many different dialects and languages. The caliphate became a hereditary ra or the khulqfa of the strongest general after the Rashidun caliphate.

Dhu al-Hijjah 26, 23 Hijri [6] was a leading companion and adviser to Muhammad.

Rashidun Caliphate

However their advance was halted by a concentration of the Byzantine army at Ajnadayn. The Rashidun Caliphate reached its greatest extent under Caliph Uthmanin Umar issued instructions that ushr should be levied in such a way so as to avoid hardship, that it will not affect the trade activities in the Islamic empire.


After four floods hit Mecca after Muhammad’s death, Umar ordered the construction of two dams to protect the Kaaba. Al Saud Saudi Arabia. This was, in fact, done to let Heraclius prepare for defences and raise new armies.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. Husband of Muhammad’s daughters, Ruqayya and later Umm Kulthum. The imperial garrisons retreated into the walled towns, where they successfully held out for a year or more.

By means of force and prevailing over others. The amount of these pensions varied with the standing of the pensioner from 10, dirhems a dirhem equalled about a franc to the widows and relations of the Prophet down to In response to these worries, Muhammad said: In the year the leaders of the rebels came from Egypt and Irak to Medina with a numerous following; and the caliph tried the plan of making promises which he did not intend to keep.

Empires largest ancient great powers medieval great powers modern great powers. Because of this, the following battle is known as the Battle of the Iron Bridge.

Al- Masjid an-Nabawi and Masjid al-Haram were enlarged first during the reign of Umar and then during the reign of Uthman ibn Affan who not only extended them to many thousand square meters but also beautified them on a large scale.

And truly good successor you proved to be when the people apostatized. On 22 August Abu Bakr died, making Umar his successor. Consensus was reached on the point that whatever was received hkulafa a year should be distributed. They all agreed that the best person who fit all the qualities of a Caliph was Ali. These were regions of great wealth controlled by powerful states, but long internecine rashidnu between Byzantines and Sasanians had left both sides militarily exhausted, and the Islamic armies easily prevailed against them.


But the Muslims sent for reinforcements and the invading army, joined by another 12, men indefeated a Byzantine army at the Battle of Heliopolis. The capital of the province of Syriathat is Damascuswas governed by Mu’awiyahwho was a kinsman of Uthman, Ali’s slain predecessor. According to Noah Feldman, a law professor at Harvard Universitythe legal scholars and jurists who once upheld the rule of law were replaced by a law governed by the state due to the codification of Sharia by the Ottoman Empire in the early 19th century: It is well known during a time of drought in the Rashidun caliphate period, capital punishments were suspended until the effects of the drought passed.

The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (Al-Khulafa-ur-Rashidun)

The movement that had raised Ali to the Caliphate did not really take any personal interest in him. And you have always struck a noble balance between gentleness and firmness.

The Byzantine army was defeated decisively on 30 July in the Battle of Ajnadayn.