The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .

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This would not be the last time that extralegal elements would contest the state’s monopoly on the legitimate right to authorize movement. On 7 January Assembly Member Le Coz, Bishop thf the Breton departement of Ille-et-Vilaine, rose to demand that the Assembly take action on a steady stream of petitions from the departe- ments throughout France which, at least so he claimed, complained of the upsurge in brigandage that had followed the suppression of passport controls, and pleaded with his colleagues for their reestablishment.

The process took place unevenly in different places, following the line where modern states replaced non-territorial forms of political organization 10 and “free” wage labor replaced various forms of servi- tude. University of California, Berkeley Ph. Otherwise, thr insisted, these departees might be on passoprt way to join the enemy forces at Coblenz after dissembling about their motives when they originally received their passports.

A notion of “foreignness” underlay this attitude, but it was not the same as that now-familiar version that reflects the thw of narcissistic nation-states.

Gradually, compe- tition among states set in motion processes of centralization that resulted in a winnowing of the number of competitors, such that only those states capable of mobilizing sufficient military and economic resources survived.

If the law were not explicidy limited in time, he feared, “you run the risk of not being able to revoke it. Yet Foucault’s emphasis on the intimate connections between power and knowledge, and on the crucial importance of individual surveillance in modern administrative systems, has proven enormously suggestive.

The principal purpose of these documentary requirements was to forestall any undesired migration to the cities, especially Paris. The exigen- cies of rule in early modern Ov led states to take a considerable interest in strengthening their power to regulate the comings and goings of their subjects. Another deputy advanced a rather more creative response to the proposed law by turning its attack on vagabondage and brigandage into a justification for land redistribution: In his important study The Nation-State and Violence, Giddens pays considerable attention to the growing role of surveillance in the development of “direct rule.

The invention of th Surveillance, Citizenship johnn the StateJohn Torpey.


Accordingly, these rulers had a powerful interest in identifying and controlling the movements of their subjects. The representatives to the Estates General thus vied contentiously over the liberty of people to circulate in France without documentary attesta- tion, and the issue carried over into the discussions of the Constituent Assembly after the fall of the Bastille.

What we now think of as “internal” movement – a meaningless and anachronistic notion before the devel- opment of modern states and the state system – has come to mean movement within national or “nation-states. As the numbers of former emigres in France swelled, they established agencies in various cities dedicated to producing evidence of non-emigration, which was essential for their ability to evade hostile authorities.


How are the people who make up “societies” compelled to “render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s”? Noiriel’s writings on the history of immigration, citizenship, and identi- fication documents in France have been a major inspiration for me; the citations of his work in the text point only to the visible peak of an ice- berg of scholarly debt.

Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State, which examines the institution of the modern passport. His ideas pervade this book, which I can only hope will provide a useful complement to his work on the role of states in shaping migration processes.

The University of California at Irvine has been supportive of me and of this project, for which I am grateful. Passports – France – History – 18th century. Toward the end of the year, however, the deputies came around to the view that the restrictions on movement within France, at least, were proving counterproductive. The consequences were ominous. Finally, my deepest thanks to Caroline, who made it all worthwhile.

The certificate of residence was to be issued by the municipality where the person was actually domiciled, and visaed within eight days by the district directory. He went on to remind the Assembly that the laws would, in any case, only affect the minority of the population that actually moved about.

The result of this process was that workers were deprived of the capacity to produce on their own and became dependent upon wages from the owners of the means of production for their survival.

In an important contribution to the newly proclaimed equality of French citizens, the revolutionaries began to move during this time toward the codification of a uniform national space in which goods and persons would be permitted to circulate freely.

Against this backdrop, it could hardly be surprising that one of the deputies harangued the Convention on 1 Maywith the charge that “the law on passports has not been implemented,” as a result of which “the scum of the Republic seeks refuge here [in Paris]and we are surrounded by assassins. Among the many restrictions to which the French revolutionaries objected was a edict of Louis XIV that had forbidden his subjects to leave the territory of France, as well as to related requirements that those quitting the Kingdom be in possession of a passport authorizing them to do so.

Full text of “The invention of the passport : surveillance, citizenship, and the state”

Because I was intrigued by the question of who supported and who opposed documentary controls on movement in various contexts and why they did so, I have discussed subsequent debates inventio these matters in other countries wherever I tbe been able to find source materials.

But we may correct for the abstractness of “power” relative to that of money by seeing that identification papers of various kinds con- stitute the bureaucratic equivalent of money: Antoine surrendered without a struggle, the revolution – at least by Georges Lefebvre’s reckoning – was over. But how does this actually happen? Accordingly, a study that began by asking how the contemporary passport regime had developed and how states used documents to con- trol movement ineluctably widened ibvention include other types of documents related to inclusion and exclusion in the citizen body, and to admission and refusal of entry into specific territories.

In particular, I seek to show that the notion that states “penetrate” societies over time fails adequately to char- acterize the nature of state development, and argue instead that we would do better to regard states as “embracing” their citizenries more successfully over time.


Before doing so, however, foreigners were to be in possession of a passport supplied by the ambassador from their own country or by the French ministry of foreign affairs, whereas the French merchants were required to obtain a passport from their own or the nearest district capital. I argue that the emergence of passport and related controls on movement is an essential aspect of the “state-ness” of states, and it there- fore seemed to be putting the cart before the horse to presume to compare states as if they were “hard,” “really-existing” entities of a type that were more nearly approximated after the First World War.

The spokesman then announced that the legislative committee’s reading of the law of 6 Fructidor Year II led it to conclude that the Convention had not, in fact, wished to change the requirements for exter- nal passports that had been dictated by the law of 7 December Views Read Edit View history. In particular, the “penetrationist” approach has had little to say about the mechanisms adopted and employed by states to construct and sustain enduring rela- tionships between themselves and their uohn, the “social base” of their 10 COMING AND GOING reproduction.

Working with her has been both a real pleasure and an extended private tutorial entirely unrecom- pensed in scholarly professionalism. Frontier areas were regarded as “hot,” however, for here the administrative and municipal organs were to “keep watch meticulously.

It was true, he conceded, that there were foreigners jogn strong antipathies toward the revolution, and he had no objection in principle to keeping them under surveillance. One member, raising the “who will guard the guards” question, said he would support Thuriot’s proposal only if it also regulated the behav- ior of the frontier municipalities charged with checking whether those leaving the country were going where they had said they would.

John Torpey

These counterfeits included hospital receipts, certificates of residence, and passports; quantity production of the latter “soon brought the price down to ten francs each and made them available to almost anyone. The American Political Science Review. Even the most unsavory figures apparently found it possible thus to get their hands on the papers they needed, even though they might have been denied them by the authorities in their place of origin.

Shortly thereafter, in its justification of a new, standard passport form for seamen, the Convention voiced its distress about the administrative chaos it confronted: The Passport Question in the French Revolution 21 The passport problem at the end of the Old Regime 21 The flight of the King and the revolutionary renewal of passport controls 25 The Constitution of 1 and the elimination of passport controls 29 The debate over passport controls of early 32 A detailed examination of the new passport law 36 Passports and freedom of movement under the Convention 44 Passport concerns of the Directory 51 3 Sweeping Out Augeas’s Stable:

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