The paper has two major parts, one theoretical and one empirical. In the first part. Jakobson’s basic aphasia model is presented, and in the second part the. empirical observations and discoveries. Jakobson examines aphasia, a disorder of language use, which he characterizes as consisting of two more fundamental. Psychopathology and the essence of language: the interpretation of aphasia by Kurt Goldstein and Roman Jakobson. Friedrich J(1). Author information.

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Metaphor and metonymy

Jakobson, whose discourse resides largely in the metalinguistic universe, makes an ideal linguist he was able use a multitude of languages, in each of which he was fluent. Experiment with jakobsonn of your own, but remember that aphhasia attempt to be too precise will tangle you in knots and controversies but then you can institute your own school of linguistics! The two types of aphasia are polar opposites, yet there are many different varieties of aphasic disturbance, which all lie between the similarity disorder and the contiguity disorder.

The linguistic theory of aphasia advocated by Jakobson in the s and s is based on clinical case studies reported by Goldstein at the beginning of the s.

Raunceon the other hand, is positively looking for hidden significance, but rather literally. Related to these aspects of the substitution deficiency are two essential aspects of language, translation and metalanguageboth of which are compromised in aphasics with a similarity disorder. What distinguishes this type of aphasia from the first type is the dependence on the signified part of the sign. So he called the deficiencies, respectively, the similarity disorder and the contiguity disorder.

This is observable in our own use of language and ultimately in our texts. We often find a similar situation with the game Call my Bluff, in which contestants on one team are given an obscure word and they take turns in convincing contestants on the other team that it means what they say.


A contiguity disorder aphasiac would use metaphor instead of metonymy. Or they can come up with sentences that are at best the jakobaon of imagined previous utterances i.

But the perspectives are all important here. A metonym is a figure that substitutes an aphasiq element, or even a part, for the whole Jakobson provides the following example: There is the map, first of all, which is a representation of the house and the country lying round about, inside the house itself. Mrs Tennant has been having a secret affair with aphssia local man, Captain Dermot Davenport of Clancarty castle, a few miles from Kinalty. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the research on aphasia carried out by the linguist Roman Jakobson and the neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein.

The arrow snapped off in her hand.

Metaphor and metonymy – Wikipedia

This is shown by the inability of these patients to add anything that would be superfluous. Metaphorically he is looking jqkobson the hidden workings behind the empirical situation. So, according to J. Verbal works of fiction or poetry, as well as image-based artworks, like painting, photography and film, can lay bare the rhetorical dimensions of representation.

As it jkaobson, the pointer is jammed because a small mouse has its foot caught in one of the cogs. We must also take into consideration that these forms of what we call representation are also aspects that cannot be dissociated from the total context for addressees, readers, spectators and observers. InJacques Lacaninspired by an article by linguist Roman Jakobsonargued that the unconscious has the same structure of a language, and that condensation and displacement are equivalent to the poetic functions of metaphor and metonymy.


For we have learned that the syntagmatic axis where context is the decisive factor involves the whole empirical situation, that is, everything that is at any time present to my experience. But the phenomena of metalinguistic usage are with us nearly all the time.

The carpets were so deep that Raunce did not hear her. This map was peculiar. Kinaltylike a slightly disguised pun, forces the forms kin and alty together. Metalanguage means language on or about language. However, Jakobson used Goldstein’s clinical observations without taking into account his theoretical work on language pathology.

Metaphor and Metonymy in Comparison and Contrast revised ed. The cat sat on the mat.

Jakobson – Aphasia as a Linguistic Problem – justin lewis

At the extremes language fails altogether, so there needs to be at least some influence from each of the two axes. There are numerous detractions from Structuralist positions; most notably, Structuralism was taken to task for overdetermining future human agency — in other words, if the structure undergirds reality how do human beings act in such a way to change or determine the structure?

Charley knew nothing as yet about Clancarty. Loss of the metalinguistic ability means that such aphasics cannot switch from a word either to any of its synonyms or to any words meaning the same thing in different languages.

Through the two characters, Mrs Tennant and Charley Rauncewe are treated to two different perspectives of a single situation, marked conspicuously by the different versions of their respective names Mr Tennant, Mrs Jack–wife of Jack Tennant–Charley or Raunce.