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H i data for about 20 per cent of the GASS sample the most gas-rich objectscan be found in either of these sources. Although ALFALFA measurements are accurate, homogeneous and unbiased, the 35509 is shallow, with the result that it does not probe a large dynamic range in H i -to-stellar mass ratio for all but the very nearest galaxies.

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With a single tuning of the receiver at a frequency of This method is described in Springob et al. On the spectra, we overplot the optical redshift of the idam red linesand the central position and widths of the line detected in the central pointings blue lines.

Irqm also fold into this catalogue 15 galaxies observed in June, as a part of a pilot programme designed to test the feasibility of the survey. Following Catinella et al. In particular, they find a dependence on stellar mass surface density, with the molecular fraction steadily increasing from surface mass densities of 10 7. Under good observing conditions, sensitivity to this minimum gas fraction, or an absolute minimum rms of 1.

When multiple measurements are found for the same galaxy, the newest is assumed to supersede previous values. As described in Section 2. The values of have been homogenized for cosmology and the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, but even with these corrections a scatter of more than 2 orders of magnitude is observed.

We assign to the non-detections either the value set by the upper limit red circlesor simply set them to zero green squares. Details of the H i observations are described in Catinella et al.


With reliable measurements of molecular gas for a large, unbiased sample of galaxies, it is possible not only to quantify scaling relations, but also to construct an accurate molecular gas idam function. As seen in Fig. Even in the stack, the red galaxies lead to a non-detection of the CO line, thus setting an even more restrictive upper limit on the molecular gas mass fraction of 0. This single tuning procedure results in enormous time savings of 15 min per source, and in an improved relative calibration accuracy.


In this paper, we present CO luminosities and molecular hydrogen masses for the first galaxies. We will also look more closely at the relationship between molecular gas content and star formation.

Overall, the molecular gas contents are more modest, averaging at ira, the CO detections, and at 0. The stellar mass and redshift ranges also ensure that we recover the total CO line flux of the galaxies with a single pointing of the IRAM m telescope, and that a single CO luminosity to conversion factor is likely adequate.

We used equation 3 and Fig.

Total H i -line fluxes, velocity widths and recessional velocities are then measured using linear fitting of the edges of the H i profiles e. Results are shown in Fig. GASS is a large programme currently under way at the Arecibo m telescope, and is producing some of the first unbiased atomic gas scaling relations in the nearby Universe Catinella et al. The results are shown in equally populated bins, each containing 37 galaxies.

The second band is tuned to a frequency of During the pilot observations of June, we took offset pointings one full beam from the central position. The best-fitting linear relations are also plotted and summarized in Table 3. The efficiency of the observations is also maximized by our single tuning approach see Section 4.

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Table 2 is published in its entirety in the electronic version of the journal see Supporting Information. The combination of these two trends produces the weak increase in as a function of stellar mass. The central velocity and total width of the detected CO lines are then measured using a custom-made idl interactive script. For any subsample of N galaxies with CO non-detection, we calculate a mean stacked spectrum: A significant fraction of this observed scatter can be attributed to measurement errors and inhomogeneities in the sample.


Any queries other than missing material should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. The values of range from 0. As we will describe, existing data sets do not, in general, meet all of these conditions.

In order to set firm upper limits for these galaxies, we require low noise values to reach our integration limit of per cent. We derive aperture corrections using a set of nearby galaxies with accurate CO maps Kuno et al. This is in strong contrast with predictions from the models of Fu et al.

The conditions listed in Section 1which are required to obtain reliable scaling laws, are routinely met by optically selected samples of galaxies at a low redshift. However, they found that is a strong function of Hubble type see also Young et al.

When the atmospheric water vapour level is low, we preferentially observe the redder galaxies, which have a very low detection rate Fig. Our choice of is roughly the mean of values estimated in the Milky Way and in nearby galaxies e.

Finally, our observations provide stringent upper limits on molecular gas fraction in the case of CO non-detections.

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