Następnie zdefiniowano interakcje międzykulturowe oraz na bazie uproszczo- organizacji do- tychczas analizowanych w badaniach PPO są relacje interpersonalne. W badaniach F. Trompenaarsa i C. Hampdena-Turnera [10] stosunki. Konflikty w międzykulturowych małżeństwach mieszanych. In: Tyszka, Z. Interpersonalne stosunki międzykulturowe, Kraków: Wydawnictwo. Nikitorowicz, Jerzy Edukacja regionalna i międzykulturowa. (Pedagogika Paleczny, Tadeusz Interpersonalne stosunki międzykulturowe. Kraków.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Organizacja i Kierowanie Siedziba: William Egelhoff Graduale School of Business. All articles published in the quarterly are subject to reviews.

Fuori Aula Network, University of Verona web-radio Uniwer- sytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu. Journal of Positive Management. Came- rona, Jane E. Per- spektywa filii zagranicznych korporacji transnarodowych [12, s.

Bibliografia [1] Adler N. Taka perspektywa badawcza jest charakterystyczna dla tzw. Transnational corporations in host economies are one of the evidence of economic globalisation. Getting into touch with foreigners includes partici- pation in intercultural interactions.

Although, the literature has noticed benefits of such relationships, researches still emphasise their obstacles. This approach is typical stosunkk so-called traditional stream in management researches. It ignores the fact that inter- cultural interactions contribute to building of social capital of an organization. Thus, the aim of this article is to emphasise the positive aspects of intercultural interactions.

The author refers to the new management concept, Positive Organisational Scholarship, in order to portrait relationships between intercultural midzykultudowe, creativity, communication, and job content.

Conclusions can be drawn that inter- cultural interactions contribute to organizational creativity, efficient communication and job satisfaction. Taki stan jest niedopuszczalny. Bibliografia [1] Blalock H.

Utilizing Human Resources, wyd. Placet, War- szawa This situation stosunji the company management modify the compensation system to limit the loss of the most productive employees, while keeping the payroll fund at the current level. Any increase in the fund was made dependent on higher productivity of labour.

midzykulurowe Polacy mobilni zawodowo, http: Rosja, Kazachstan Petrolinvest kontrolowany przez R. Diversity in the modern global organization, Conference Pro- ceedings, eds. Benson, Santa Fe, June On this background, the individual factors determining mobility of Polish managers were presented. Ten typ kultur obejmuje: Bibliografia [1] Cameron K. In addition, it was described as partly the culture of creators and the culture of quality. Comparative studies show that some elements of the culture of mining organizations have not changed.

However attitudes to professionalism stosunkki work rules have been improved. Two major events shaped the European landscape: In this paper we focus on four EU countries, i.

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences in ethics, and more specifically, ethical idealism and relativism, between these Finno-Ugrian countries as well as how age and gender are related to ethical idealism and relativism. The meta-analysis revealed that the levels of idealism and relativism vary interpersona,ne regions of the world in mixzykulturowe ways. Moroccan managers tended to be more ideal- istic than Intrrpersonalne managers Oumlil and Balloun The Finno-Ugrian countries of our study were not involved in Forsyth et al.


Estonia, Finland, Hungary, and Hungarians in Slovakia are presented interpersonalnf the emphasis on age and gender differences. The results are miszykulturowe at the end of the paper. The ethics position theory involves two independent dimensions: Midzykultjrowe relativism and idealism Relativism involves the idea that universal moral principles e.

Highly relativistic indi- viduals are skeptical of universal moral principles and emphasize instead the role of circumstances and stakeholders, while the non-relativistic individuals accept uni- versal principles in their ethical judgments Bass et al. Davis with colleagues found relativism neither to be related to empathy, empathic concern, lnterpersonalne the ability to adopt the views of others, while interpersonalnne is positively related to all these characteristics.

Midzykylturowe believe that good outcomes can be achieved for everybody by morally correct actions Forsythwhile according to non-idealists, morally correct actions could also lead to negative outcomes. Consequently, the results of actions are important to idealism Hartikainen and Torstila Idealists believe that good outcomes for all can be achieved by morally correct actions; therefore the emphasis is on morally correct ac- tions.

Instead, the non-idealists assume that even morally correct actions might lead to negative consequences.

Based on the degree of idealism and relativism, Forsyth identifies four ethics positions: Even though ethical ideologies are distinct from practical judgments in particular situations, they are related. Thus, absolutists tend to have the strictest moral judgments and higher ethical attitudes, whereas subjectivists tend to have the most lenient moral judgments Hartikainen and Torstila According to Giffordthree levels of analyses are needed in the develop- ment of the theory of ethical relativism: At the individual level, age and gender are typical factors in ethics stud- ies e.

The cultural level studies, instead, focus on cultural differences in ethics. Ac- cording to McDonald, cultural relativists deny the existence of ultimate universal ethical principles. All value judgments are relative to the cultural context. Ethical conduct is thus influenced by cultural or situational factors pushing and pulling individuals towards certain reasoning and conduct, but also by the individ- ual-level characteristics, i.

For instance, Bierly et al. According to previous studies, also demographic characteristics, such as age and gender have an impact on ethics.

Interpersonalne stosunki międzykulturowe

We first review these individual-level factors impacting ethics and then focus on cultural differences. Age and gender In prior stosnuki of ethical beliefs and conduct, age and gender are widely ex- amined determinants. According to several studies e. Instead, in studies dealing with ethical idealism and relativism, the findings are contradictory. Also an inter- national comparative study by Alsua et al. Based on prior literature on the relationship between age and ethical conduct, we midzykilturowe the following hypotheses: Younger people are more idealistic than older people.

Interperzonalne people are less relativist than the older ones. Prior research on gender and ethics has revealed versatile findings. According to Clark and Barry and Bass et al. As to relativism, several studies reveal that woman express higher ethical attitudes than men and get lower values in relativism Cohen et al. Midzgkulturowe Hartikainen and Torstila and McCabe et al. And further, Hoffman revealed that in some situations women are more ethical but in other situations they are not.


Based on prior results of the relationship between gender and ethics, we propose the following hypotheses: Men are less idealistic than women. Men are more relativistic than women.


Because of these mixed results we compare and contrast the levels of ethical rela- tivism and idealism in different countries. The Finno-Ugrian countries Ethical issues are strongly influenced by moral values held by members of the community at large Forsyth The context of this study concerning ethical ide- alism and relativism is four countries, which share the heritage of the Finno-Ugrian group of nations: Finland, Estonia, Hungary, and Hungarians in Slovakia.

Hungar- ian is the biggest language followed by Finnish and Estonian in the Finno-Ugrian family of twelve languages. Finns and Hungarians also share the same proportion of European to Uralic genes Cav- alli-Sforza et al. Geographically Finland and Estonia are located in Northern Europe separated by the Gulf of Finland, while Hungary and Slovakia where Hungarian people were studied are neighboring countries in Central Europe.

Finland retained its independence in spite of losing the war against the Soviet Union; instead, Estonia was incorporated into the Soviet Union in With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Baltic States including Estonia re-estab- lished their independence, and the Soviet-bloc countries could start the transition from the communist regime to market economy. The Hungarian minority is concentrated mostly in the Southern part of the country, near the border with Hungary.

Ethnic Hungarians compared with Slovaks are more likely to live in villages and they are less educated Miller et al.

Sev- eral thousands of ethnic Hungarians are employed in Hungary, mainly as production line workers. Since the EU enlargement in Hungarian firms have been able to employ ethnic Hungarians from Slovakia full time and without significant red interpersonane. Hungarians in the Slovak Republic From the ethics point of view, Miller et al. Since the s, Finland has constructed the Nordic welfare state with strong principles of equality and well-being. All three Finno-Ugrian countries differ in religiosity.

The cultural studies, e. As Appendix 1 shows there are sttosunki phases in histories of Finno-Ugrian countries also from the institutional perspective. Institutions could be seen from both the structural perspective and the social one.

From the social perspective, institutions are accounts of how the social world works and embody normative principles and social values Meyer et al.