FENOLOGIA DE RHIZOPHORA MANGLE PDF

FENOLOGIA DE RHIZOPHORA MANGLE PDF

monospecific forests of Rhizophora mangle L., located in Laguna de Terminos, Campeche, México [18]. la fenología de las plantas. Ciencia. fenologia de rhizophora mangle pdf. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Aug 28, 20 am. Looking for fenologia de rhizophora mangle pdf. Will be grateful for any. Perez-Bedmar M, Santangelo JA () Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L .) Oecologia – Santos CCL () Fenologia de Avicennia L. em.

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Phenological variation of Rhizophora mangle and ground water chemistry associated to changes of the precipitation. Mangrove forests are vulnerable to long term changes of temperature and precipitation. In addition, we want to know how the salinity and the redox potential of the ground water of a monospecific mangrove forest of Rhizophora mangle are modified according to this variation.

Finally, we describe the fnologia litterfall, and the flowers and hypocotiles production of the studied mangrove and analyze these responses as a function of the environment variables.

Our study suggests ghizophora resilient ability of R. Litterfall, mangroves, redox potential, salinity, standardized precipitation index.

Los resultados de este estudio sugieren una habilidad resiliente de R. Climate variation, on a seasonal and a yearly basis, affect the temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and temperature at local and global scales in many coastal regions of the world Cook et al. According to Fieldchanges in the precipitation may cause differences in the distribution and the surface of mangrove ecosystems, affecting particularly diverse regeneration processes of these ecosystems.

Salinity gradients of the ground water, derived from changes of the precipitation as well as from the inundation regime and the microtopography among other hydroperiod factorsmay act as regulating determinants of physiologic processes in mangrove communities, such as tree photosynthesis and growth Lichtenthaler, Mexican mangroves also depend in a great extent on geomorphology and tectonics Carranza-Edwards et al.

The Gulf of Mexico, for example, has a wide continental platformand a high precipitation regime. These conditions have favored the development of large areas of coastal wetlands Toledo-Ocampo, along the Atlantic coast. We also describe the variation of the ground water chemistry salinity and redox potential of a monospecific mangrove forest of a fringe type with a trend to be a riverine forest of Rhizophora mangle Linneo during the same period, as well as the productivity, based on litterfall, and the reproductive phenology flowers and hypocotile production of the mangrove.

We expect that the variability of the ground water chemistry, and the biological responses of this mangrove forest will reflect the variation of the precipitation regime during We ask the following questions: Isla del Carmen is a barrier island that has an area of There are two permanent communication channels to the sea, the inlets- Puerto Real and Del Carmen, at the extreme points of the lagoon.

The minima and maxima evaporation rates are 1, Sediments of Isla del Carmen show a dominance of transitional sands The borders of the lagoon are covered by mangrove forests, especially dense at the southwest, eastern and south-southeastern parts of Isla del Carmen. Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans Linneo Linneo are the dominant mangrove species Coronado-Molina et al.

The monospecific forest of R. We characterized the distribution of the rainfall for the period of study, on a yearly and seasonal basis, through the Standardized Precipitation Index McKee et al. A SPI that is near to 0 means that the conditions are regular; if the SPI is below 0, it indicates that the accumulated precipitation for the study period is lower than the mean of the reference period; when the SPI is In order to calculate the SPI index different data sets were used for our period of study.

The first data set corresponds to the annual precipitation of the nearest meteorological station to the study site Isla Aguada, No. This data set was used to detect a pattern of drought periods from toand to obtain a mean annual precipitation value of reference.

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The second set of data corresponds to the same station for our period of study ; it includes the annual and the seasonal precipitation of all years and seasons of that period. We used these data to calculate the mean annual precipitation for this period, which is compared to the mean annual precipitation for the long term reference period.

Seasonal variation of precipitation was also evaluated among the years, duringin order to detect seasonal differences among years. Seasonal periods, based on temperature and precipitation data. A cluster multivariate analysis se applied to a data set of monthly precipitation and temperature, obtained from the nearest weather station to the study site, Isla Hrizophora No.

In addition, the seasonal pattern of variation of the Isla Aguada was compared to data from 41 other meteorological stations distributed all over Campeche. Yearly and seasonal variation of the precipitation. We used a precipitation data set of Isla Aguada stationfor the periodadding the data from November and December ofand from January ofto complete the seasonal periods.

We considered this data set for the fenllogia measures ANOVA see below to know if the precipitation significantly changes on a seasonal and yearly basis. From towith a monthly basis, we measured the salinity and the redox potential of the ground water of the studied mangrove.

The redox potential measures the activity of the electrons of the chemicals found in the ground water, and it is specifically related with the oxygen dissolved in water Hermosilla et al. Along a 30 m-transect from the coast line of the lagoon to the interior of the vegetation up rhjzophora the borderline of the mangrovewe installed three 0. These tubes fenolofia drilled, with 1 cm diameter holes, at 30 cm depth at this depth the largest amount of root biomass of trees is usually located.

Water samples were collected after the tubes were drained and water was stabilized. Physiognomic type of the forest. The general procedure consists of tracing a transversal transect, which is divided in 20 points centered quarter pointsfrom the coast line of manble lagoon towards the forest.

Rhizophora mangle – definition of Rhizophora mangle by The Free Dictionary

Each point is the center of Cartesian grid system; in each quadrant the distance to the nearest mangrove tree fenoologia measured, as well as the diameter and the height of the tree. From these data, the basal area of the trees and the density for each species is calculated.

The modified procedure for mangroves consists of a differential measure of the tree diameter according to the species: If the species is Rhizophora mangle the tree diameter is measured 30 cm above the binding of the oldest aerial roots. The physiognomic type of the forest was determined through the density, basal area and height of the forest rhlzophora Flores-Verdugo et al.

Productivity based on litterfall production. We evaluated the productivity of the mangrove forest in terms of the litterfall production of Rhizophora mangle during a five-yr periodas the total dry weight of litterfall per square meter per year and per season. We randomly installed 14 net litter traps area of 0. Traps were hold at their four corners below the tree canopy and above the highest tide level. Once the material was dried, we separated and weighed the material in branches, leaves, flowers, hypocotiles and stipules.

We grouped the data in monthly sets of seasonal and yearly groups to do the statistical analyses. We applied a repeated measures analysis of variance to test the effect of years and seasons on the variation of the precipitation duringthe ground water chemical parameters salinity and redox ceand mahgle biological data litterfall and hypocotile production. We did a multiple mean comparison, when needed, with the Fisher’s protected LSD test.

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For this analysis we rrhizophora data fenoloogia the root-square as recommended by Guisande et al. We applied the Pearson correlation coefficient to correlate the precipitation with the physicochemical and productivity parameters. Finally, a multiple regression rhizophoga was applied to evaluate the dependence of the productivity litterfall production and the hypocotile production on precipitation, salinity and the redox potential.

Temporal distribution of the precipitation. We could differentiate three seasons for the study site Fig. These results were confirmed with a larger data set from 41 weather stations distributed all over Campeche.

Drought analysis of the study site. The distribution of the precipitation was not homogeneous during the reference period from to In contrast, the precipitation surpassed the reference average in, and SPI values of amngle. During this period, seasonal precipitation differed among years. Inthe SPI was negative in all seasons, particularly, in the rainy season mmangle In contrast, SPI was positive for this season 1.

During the Nortes season, unexpectedly, the SPI was negative in all years from The SPI was negative in and Yearly and seasonal variation of the precipitation from to The year showed a precipitation 1. Considering only the rainy season, showed an extremely high precipitation 1, mmthis value surpassed the precipitation of the rest of the years during the period of study mmand the year showed the lowest precipitation during this season mm.

In contrast, showed the least amount of precipitation in the Fenologiia season 49 mmwhereas inthe precipitation of the Nortes season was the highest mm.

Reduced conditions rhiaophora the highest salinity were recorded in and Salinity increased in both rainy and dry seasons in In this year, salinity was high during both the rainy season In contrast, salinity conditions in were different, showing oligohaline-mesohaline characteristics Salinity of the ground water was low for both the rainy and the Re seasons Inprecipitation increased during the rainy and Nortes seasons contrasting with favoring mesohaline and oxygenic-hypoxic fenolgia.

During the overall period, the water body was characterized as mesoha-line We characterized the mangrove forest of this study as a monospecific fringe type with a riverine trend Majgle Verdugo et al. Forest productivity based on total litterfall production.

Forest productivity varied from The litterfall distribution within a year showed a similar pattern across the years, showing the highest peaks in the rainy season The biggest peaks of leaf production occurred in and 1, The leaf production was always high in the rainy season and low in the dry season Figs.

The largest values of leaf production occurred in the rainy season in Reproductive phenology and hypocotile production.

fenologia de rhizophora mangle pdf

Although flower production occurred in all the months from tothe largest peak of production was in the rainy season and the beginning of the Nortes season November and December in those years The lowest flower production occurred in the dry season of 8.

Flowers were produced in all months of the year, however, they were more abundant in the rainy season in all years. The highest production of hypocotiles occurred in During the Nortes season, this production drastically decreased from tobeing almost absent in Rhizophora mangle showed the largest production of hypocotiles during the rainy season and the beginning of Nortes in and The lowest production of hypocotiles was recorded in the rainy season of Hypocotile production drastically reduced in the rainy season of Prediction models for the litterfall and the hypocotile production.