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Another way to produce acceptable images would be to drill smaller holes millimeter or even micrometer scale closer to the outer sectors of the disk, but technological evolution favoured electronic means of image acquisition. This article needs additional citations for verification. The scanning disk can be replaced by a polygonal mirror, but this suffers from the same problem — nip,ow of integration over time.

This file is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 1. Simple calculations show that, for equally sensitive photosensitive receptors, the iconoscope is hundreds to thousands of times more sensitive than the disk or the Farnsworth scanner.

File:Disco nipkow svg – Wikimedia Commons

The timestamp is only as accurate as the clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong. The patterns may or may not partially overlap, depending on the exact construction of the disk. By spinning the disk rapidly enough, the object seems complete and capturing of motion becomes possible.

These holes are positioned to form a single-turn spiral starting from an external radial point of the disk and proceeding to the center of the disk. Another serious disadvantage lay with reproducing images at the receiving end of the transmission which was also accomplished with a Nipkow disk. If the sensor is made to control a light behind a second Nipkow disk rotating synchronously at the same speed and in the same direction, the image will be reproduced line-by-line.

The scanning system simply “picks off” the accumulated charge as it sweeps past each site on the target. Some means of synchronizing the disks on the two devices must also be devised several options are possible, ranging from manual to electronic control signals.


A lens projects an image of the scene in front of it directly onto the disk. Television technology History of television German inventions in science in Germany. Apart from the aforementioned mechanical television, which never became popular for the practical reasons mentioned above, a Nipkow disk is used in one type of confocal microscopea powerful optical microscope. The actual amount of light gathered is instantaneous, occurring through a very small aperture, and the net yield is only a microscopic percentage of the incident energy.

File:Disco nipkow 24.svg

Archived from the original on March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Another drawback of the Nipkow disk as an image scanning device: Another advantage is that the receiving device is very similar to the acquisition device, except that the light-sensitive device is replaced by a variable light source, driven by the signal provided by the acquisition device.

Views Read Edit View history. However the maximum number of scanlines is much more limited, being equal to the nippkow of holes nipiow the disk, which in practice ranged from 30 towith rare hole disks tested. This page was last edited on 15 Julyat Nilkow acquisition part of the system was not much better, requiring very powerful lighting of the subject.

These facts helped immensely in building the first mechanical television accomplished by the Scottish inventor John Logie Baird se, as well as the first “TV-Enthusiasts” communities and even experimental image radio broadcasts in the s. Views View Edit History. The resolution along a Nipkow disk’s scanline is potentially very high, being an analogue scan.

Description Disco nipkow When the disk rotates, the holes trace circular ring patterns, with inner and outer diameter depending on each hole’s position on the disk and thickness equal to each hole’s diameter. A Nipkow disk sometimes Anglicized as Nipkov disk; patented inalso known as scanning diskis a mechanical, rotating, geometrically operating image scanning device, patented in by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow. This can be intuitively understood by covering all of the disk but a small rectangular area with black cardboard which stays fixedspinning the disk and observing an object through the small area.

Retrieved from ” https: Retrieved 28 April This file contains additional information such as Exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it.


Iconoscopes and their successors accumulate energy on the target continuously, thereby integrating energy over time. Nipkow disk template with 24 holes and window. One of the advantages of using a Nipkow disk is that the image sensor that is, the device converting light to electric signals can be as simple as a single photocell or photodiodesince at each instant only a very small area a pixel is visible through the disk and viewportand so decomposing an image into lines is done almost by itself with little need for scanline timing, and very high scanline resolution.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Retrieved from ” https: This page was last edited on 28 Novemberat Further disadvantages include the non-linear geometry of the scanned images, and the impractical size of the disk, at least in the past.

Summary [ edit ] Description Disco nipkow Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The person who associated a work with this deed has dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.

When spinning the disk while observing an object “through” the disk, preferably through a relatively small circular sector of the disk the viewportfor example, an angular quarter or eighth of the disk, the object seems “scanned” line by line, first by length or height or even diagonally, depending on the exact sector chosen for observation.

I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license:. The device is a mechanically spinning disk of any suitable material metal, plastic, cardboard, etc.

The devices using them were also noisy and heavy with very low picture quality and a great deal of flickering. Disk scanners share a major limitation with the Farnsworth image dissector.