great “magic” of the Disney spell is that he animated the fairy tale only to transfix audiences JACK ZIPES. Breaking the Disney Spellt. It was not once upon a. According to Jack Zipes in his article, “Breaking the Disney Spell,” in From Mouse to Mermaid: “[Walt] Disney employed the most up-to-date. Zipes argues that through his use of innovative technologies, ingenuity, and his own “American” grit, Walt Disney appropriated European fairy.

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In his examinations of key classical fairy tales, Zipes traces their unique metamorphoses in history with stunning discoveries that reveal their ideological relationship to domination and oppression. It was through script by the end of the nineteenth century that there was a full-scale debate about what oral folk tales and literary fairy tales were and what their respective functions should be. As producer of the fairy-tale films and major owner of the Disney studios, he wanted to figure in the film disnye sought, as Crafton has noted, to create a more indelible means of self-figuration.

The pictures deprive the audience now of visualizing their own characters, thhe, and desires. One of the more interesting aspects of the early rbeaking films is a psychically loaded tension between the artist and the characters he drew, one that is ripe for a Freudian or Lacanian reading, for the artist is always threatening to take away their “lives,” while they, in turn, seek to deprive him of his pen phallus or creative inspiration so that they can control their disneg lives.

Of course, the house for the Grimms and Disney was the place where good girls remained, and one aspect of the fairy tale and the film is about the domestication of women. For instance, Disney in his Alice films often employed a cat named Julius, who would take off his tail tthe use it as stick, weapon, rope, hook, question mark, etc. In contrast to the traditional fairy tale, the hero is not a peasant, nor is ziles dumb. By the end of the nineteenth century the literary fairy tale had the following crucial functions as institution in middle-class fisney If we recall, Perrault wrote his tale in to reflect upon a cunning cat, whose life is threatened, and who manages to survive by using his brains to trick a king and an ogre.

His next step after sound was color, and in he signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor and began producing his Silly Symphony Cartoons in color. They all have names—Doc, Sleepy, Bashful, Happy, Sneezy, Grumpy, Dopey—representative of certain human characteristics and are fleshed out so that they become the star risney of the film. These tales did not represent communal values but rather the vales of a particular writer.

That is, most of the studios, largely located in New York, had become taylorized and were run by men who joined together under the supervision of the head of the studio to produce the cartoons. Instead of using technology to enhance the communal aspects of narrative and bring about major changes in viewing stories to stir and animate viewers, he employed animators and technology splel stop thinking about change, to return to his films, and to long nostalgically for neatly ordered patriarchal realms.


Zipes contends that the magic of Disney lies in his ability to transfix audiences and divert their Utopian dream through false promises propagated through animated fairy tales.

According disnye Zipes, the French fairy tales heightened the aspect of the chosen aristocratic elite:. You are commenting using your Twitter account.

They all have names — Doc, Sleepy, Bashful, Happy, Sneezy, Grumpy, Dopey — representative of brealing human characteristics and are fleshed-out so that they become the star attractions of the film.

The hero upsets the king and runs off with his prize possession, the virginal princess. By this time, the fairy tale had expanded as a high art form operas, ballets, dramas and low art form folk plays, vaudevilles, and parodies as well as a form developed classically and experimentally for children and adults.

In epell to be accepted into the cultivated literary circles of the French bourgeoisie of the late seventeenth century, fairy tales had to be transformed. This site uses cookies. Fairy tales were first told by gifted tellers and were based on rituals intended to endow meaning to the daily lives of members ths a tribe. Zipes argues that by the end of the nineteenth century, the literary fairy tale had the following crucial functions as institution in middle-class society:.

Once Disney stopped animating, he became a designer. Fill in your details below or beaking an icon to log in: By literature began to be superseded by the mechanical means of reproduction that, Walter Benjamin declared, were revolutionary: On the contrary, Disney employed the most up-to- date technological means and used his own “American” grit and ingenuity to appropriate the European fairy tales.

They deprive the spll of viewing the production and manipulation, and in the end, audiences zips no longer envision a fairy tale for themselves as they can when they read it. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Yet, worship of the fairy tale as holy scripture is more of a petrification of the fairy tale that is connected to the establishment of correct speech, values, and power more than anything else.

A designer is someone who indicates with a distinctive mark, and Disney put his mark on everything in his studios. Rather, it was in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs that Disney fully appropriated the literary fairy-tale and spel his signature into a trademark for the most acceptable type of fairy tale in the twentieth century.

Wasn’t he just more inventive, more skillful, more in touch with the American spirit of the times than his competitors, who also sought to animate the classical fairy tale for the screen? At first it was obvious and literal; at the end it was subtle and cloaked in metaphors and symbolic imagery designed to facilitate the process and yet to keep the idea gratifying for the artist and the audience.


Foundational Essay: Zipes’ “Breaking the Disney Spell”

Then she uses a hypnotic machine to defeat the bull and another fairly new invention, the automobile, to escape the king. He did not use a magic wand or demonic powers. By these films were no longer popular so that he and Ub Iwerks developed Oswald the Lucky Rabbit cartoons that also found favor with audiences. He does nothing to help the people or the community.

Selected pages Title Page. Did he imprint a particular American vision on the fairy tale breakig his animated films that dominates our perspective today? According to Zipes, the French fairy tales heightened the aspect of the chosen aristocratic elite: It was the phallic means disnfy induce action and conceive a way out of a breeaking.

In fact, the fairy tale is practically infantilized, just as the jokes are infantile. As Richard Schickel has perceptively remarked, Disney “could make something his own, all right, but that process nearly always robbed the work at hand of its uniqueness, of its soul, if you will.

Xisney is nothing but the “eternal return of the same” in Beauty and the Beast and Aladdin that makes for enjoyable viewing and delight in techniques of these films as commodities but nothing new in the exploration of narration, animation, and signification.

Throughout time fairy tales have changed a lot in the way they are told, the lessons they are meant to teach and so much more and the fact that Disney was able to take it back to the beginning and basing his tales off of society and how the people of society could relate to his tales.

Most important in the late nineteenth century was the rise of folklore as an institution and various schools of literary criticism that dealt with fairy tales and folk tales.

Usually these were very flattering, for he was pictured as or implied to be a demigod, a purveyor of life itself. Their first and perhaps lasting breakng of these tales and others will have emanated from a Disney film, book, or artefact.

Breaking the Disney Spell | Jack Zipes –

It introduced notions of elitism and separatism through a select canon of tales geared to children who knew how to read. With the rise of literacy and the invention of the printing press in the 15th century, the oral tradition of storytelling underwent an immense revolution.

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