In this article we will discuss about the process of androgenesis, explained with the Success of anther culture is highly dependent on the genotype of the plant. The success of androgenesis dependent on the variety used, the growth . Razdan M.K, An introduction to plant tissue culture, ().Oxford. In vitro androgenesis is an important component of plant biotechnology when the pollen .. In: Korea-China Plant Tissue Culture Symposium, Academia Sinica.

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Two approaches based on morphology and genetics are commonly used to detect or identify haploids. Gynogenic haploids were first developed by San Noem from the ovary cultures of Hordeum vulgare. However, in this case, both vegetative and generative cells can further divide and contribute to the development of haploid plant e. Haploid plants are of great significance for the production of homozygous lines homozygous androgenesi and for the improvement of plants in plant breeding programmes.

The presence of only one ovary per flower is another disadvantage. There are however, certain plants which can grow well in both light and dark. androgenesos

After removal of calyx, corolla and stamens, the ovaries see Fig. Endomitosis is the phenomenon of doubling the number of chromosomes without division of the nucleus.

When the anther culture medium is supplemented with activated charcoal, enhanced androgenesis is tjssue. This stimulates the axillary buds to grow into diploid and fertile branches.

Microspores undergoes division in unorganised fashion to give rise to callus and by embryogenic or organogenic induction the haploid plantlets may be obtained.

Process of Androgenesis (With Diagram) | Biotechnology

The disadvantages associated with anther culture can be overcome by pollen culture. Morphological approach, however, is not as effective as genetic approach. This variation may be due to endomitosis or fusion jn various nuclei during the developmental stages of anthers at the time of excision and culture.


The success was much higher by in vitro techniques. The division of microspore is asymmetrical as in pathway II, but both the cells take part in embryo formation and sporophyte development e.

Production of Haploid Plants (With Diagram)

In recent years, some workers have developed specially designed media for anther cultures of cereals. Now, the main axis is decapitated.

It may be noted that for the anrogenesis of androgenic haploids, the dominant gene marker should be present in the female plant. The embryos are formed from the generative cell while the vegetative cell does not divide at all or undergoes limited number of divisions e.

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After formation of macroscopic structures, these can be transferred to a regeneration medium and kept at 14 hr. This property of haploid cells is exploited for diploidization to produce homozygous plants. As soon as the starch deposition starts within the microspore there is no further development towards sporophyte.

The success of another culture and androgenesis is also dependent on the composition of the medium. Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.

Production of Haploid Plants (With Diagram)

There are many ways of colchicine treatment to achieve diploidization for production of homozygous plants. In this case, the microspore undergoes unequal division. Applications of Haploid Plants. As colchicine is a spindle inhibitor it is used to induce chromosome duplication in various ways: Datura metel, Atropa belladonna. Here’s how it works: Haploid plants can be produced from immature pollen or microspores male gametophytic cells.


The androgeneiss microspores divide unequally forming vegetative and generative cell. Production of gynogenic haploids is particularly useful in plants androgenexis male sterile genotype. Consequently, there is no seed formation.

These pollens when cultured may form embryos. The haploid cells, in general, are unstable in culture with a tendency to undergo endomitosis.

Ultra violet rays or X-rays may be used to induce chromosomal breakage and their subsequent elimination to produce haploids. The process of in vitro androgenesis for the ultimate production of haploid plants is depicted in Fig.

Many workers prefer pollen culture, even though the degree of success is low, as it offers the following advantages: The ovary, with a cut cluture at the distal part of pedicel, is inserted in the solid culture medium. There are two approaches in androgenesis— anther culture and pollen microspore culture. There is, however, no single medium suitable for anther cultures of all plant species.

For such plant species, this technique is superior to another culture technique.

In this article we will discuss about the process of androgenesis, explained with the help of suitable diagrams. This results in the production of diploid homozygous cells and ultimately plants. Haploids can be diploidized by duplication of chromosomes to produce homozygous plants. The plants grown under best natural environmental conditions light, temperature, nutrition, CO 2 etc.

Flowers obtained from young plants, at the beginning of the flowering season are highly responsive.