ANALISIS DE ORINA ATLAS COLOR [LAURINE GRAFF SISTER] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Get this from a library! Graff: análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales. [Lillian A Mundt; Laurine Graff; Kristy Shanahan]. Analisis de Orina Graff – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Analisis de orina.

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Case studies and clinical situations show how work in the classroom translates to work in the lab. The nitrite test is not particularly reliable and negative results in the presence of clinical symptoms are not uncommon, meaning that the test should not be taken as conclusive.

At a pH level of 3, both indicators appear yellow in the absence of protein. Any amount of blood greater than five cells per microliter of urine is considered clinically significant, visual examination cannot be relied upon to detect the presence of blood. Publicado por Voroshilov en Once blood has ds detected, the microscopic examination can be used to differentiate between hematuria and hemoglobinuria.

Therefore, sediments containing bacteria should be checked closely gracf the presence of red blood cells.

Urine test strip – Wikipedia

The determination of urinary pH has two main objectives, one is diagnostic and the other is therapeutic. They also occur if strong oxidizing detergents are present in the specimen container. The stercobilinogen can not be reabsorbed and remains in the intestine.

Other proteins include small amounts of serum and tubular microglobulins. False positive reactions can be due to unusual pigments in the urine for example, yellowy orange phenazopyridine metabolites, indican and the metabolites of the medicine Lodine Etodolac. The hemoglobin precipitates out with the ammonia sulphate but not the myoglobin.

This thoroughly updated 5th Edition provides concise and carefully structured full-color instruction in the handling and analysis of non-blood body fluids. False-positive anaoisis are obtained when the reaction does not take place analiais acidic conditions.

dw A false-positive trace reading may occur in specimens with a high specific gravity. Specific kidney and urinary dde diseases that can be identified include: Retrieved 30 March The esterase reaction needs about 2 minutes to take place.

CS1 Spanish-language sources es CS1 maint: Depending on the manufacturer, the protein area of the strip contains different chemicals. It covers quality assurance and management, including requirements of accrediting agencies. Treatment monitoring with the aid of urine test strips allows a health professional to check on the results of the prescribed therapy, and if necessary to introduce any changes into the course of therapy.


The test strips use a diazotization reaction in order to detect bilirubin. Both Multitistix and Chemstrip have modified their reagent strips to reduce this interference to very high levels of ascorbic acid, and Chemstip overlays the reagent pad with an iodate-impregnated mesh that oxidizes the ascorbic acid prior to its reaching the reaction pad.


The jaundice produced by the accelerated destruction of red blood cells does not produce bilirubinuria, as the high serum bilirubin is found in the unconjugated form and the kidneys are unable to excrete dw. Specific liver diseases and haemolytic disorders able to be identified include liver diseaseaccompanied by jaundicecirrhosisurobilinogenuria and bilirubinuria. Non-pathological hematuria can be observed after strenuous exercise and during menstruation.

The presence of blood in the urine is, of all the parameters normally tested, the one that is most closely related with traumatic damage to the kidneys or the genitourinary tract. Of the routine chemical tests performed on urine, the most indicative of renal disease is the protein determination. The reactive strips detect nitrite by using the Greiss reaction in which the nitrite reacts in an acid medium with an aromatic amine para-arsanilic acid or sulphanilamide in order to form a diazonium salt that in graff reacts with tetrahydrobenzoquinoline to produce a pink azo dye.

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Retrieved February 09,from Roche Diagnostics. The term ketones or ketone bodies in reality refers to three intermediate products in the metabolism of fatty acids ; acetoneacetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid.

The body fluids chapters are expanded to include additional anatomy, physiology, and recent advances in testing.

An improper technique can produce false results, for example, leukocytes and erythrocytes precipitate at the bottom of the container and may not be detected if the sample is not properly mixed, and in the same way, if an excess of urine remains on the strip after it has been removed from the test sample, may cause the reagents to leak from the pads onto adjacent pads resulting in mixing and distortion of the colours.


Specific carbohydrate metabolism disorders able to be identified include Diabetes MellitusGlucosuria and Ketonuria. A standard urine test strip may comprise up to 10 different chemical pads or reagents which react change color when immersed in, and then removed from, a urine sample.

It reviews renal physiology and renal function testing.

Urine test strip

When hemolytic disorders occur the amount of unconjugated bilirubin that is present in the blood increases causing an increase in hepatic excretion of conjugated bilirubin, resulting in increased amounts of urobilinogen that in turn causes an increase in reabsorption, recirculation and renal excretion. The molecules with the greatest mass contribute more to the measure of specific gravity than smaller molecules. grff

The test can often be read in as little as 60 to seconds after dipping, although certain tests require longer. The test used in the urine test strips is based on the reaction of sodium nitroprusside nitroferricyanide. This conjugated bilirubin does not normally appear in the urine as it is excreted directly analisjs the intestine in bile.

Likewise, a technical error of allowing the reagent pa to remain in contact with the urine for a prolonged period may remove the buffer. Early diagnosis allows appropriate therapeutic measures to be instituted in good time, avoiding consequential damage and further infections. The colours vary from dark blue with a reading of 1. False-negative reactions can result when dr with a high specific gravity contains crenated red blood cells that do not lyse when they come in contact with the reagent pad.

On the other hand, certain illnesses require a patient to keep the pH of their urine within given narrow margins, whether to promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, avoid the precipitation of salts that promote the formation of gallstones, or in order to facilitate the control of a urinary infection.